Commit 307e3d4d authored by Philippe Helluy's avatar Philippe Helluy

up

parent 48dc98ee
......@@ -417,690 +417,73 @@ I would like the authors to give a more detailed explanation of how they
We enriched the computational part of the part with a more precise evaluation
of the performance of the code: memory bandwidth and computational intensity.
This analysis confirms the excellent efficiency of the implementation.
\begin_inset Newline newline
\end_inset
In order to measure the efficiency of the implementation we perform a memory
bandwidth test for a
\begin_inset Formula $512\times512$
\end_inset
grid.
One time-step of the method implies the read access in the global memory
of the set of fields of the previous time-step.
The local computations are done in registers.
Then there is another write access to global memory for storing the data
of the next time-step.
The memory size in Gigabyte of one set of fields is
\begin_inset Formula
\[
n_{\text{GB}}=\frac{\texttt{\texttt{Nx}\ensuremath{\times\texttt{Ny}}\ensuremath{\times prec}}\times4\times m}{1024^{3}},
\]
\end_inset
This analysis confirms the good efficiency of the implementation.
\end_layout
where
\begin_inset Formula $prec$
\begin_layout Enumerate
If my arithmetic is correct, the largest 7000 2 simulation uses more than
10 GB of memory for one set of fields in float64 format (...)
\begin_inset Quotes erd
\end_inset
is the number of bytes for storing one floating point number (
\begin_inset Formula $prec=4$
\end_inset
for single precision and
\begin_inset Formula $prec=8$
\begin_inset Newline newline
\end_inset
for double precision).
We then perform a given number of time iterations
\begin_inset Formula $n_{\text{iter}}$
\end_inset
The largest computations were done on an NVIDIA Quadro P6000 with 24 GB
of memory.
The two sets of fields thus entered the GPU memory.
\end_layout
and measure the elapsed time
\begin_inset Formula $t_{\text{elapsed}}$
\begin_layout Enumerate
The authors should say precisely how they computed the discrete divergence
and discrete curl of the magnetic field to create these plots.
\begin_inset Newline newline
\end_inset
in the OpenCL kernels.
We perform two kind of experiments.
In the first experiment, we deactivate the numerical computations and only
perform the shift operations.
The memory bandwidth of the shift algorithm is then given by
This information is now given.
\begin_inset Formula
\[
b=\frac{2\times n_{\text{GB}}\times n_{\text{iter}}}{t_{\text{elapsed}}}.
\nabla\cdot\mathbf{B}\simeq\frac{B_{1}(x+\Delta x,y)-B_{1}(x-\Delta x,y)}{2\Delta x}+\frac{B_{2}(x,y+\Delta y)-B_{2}(x,y-\Delta y)}{2\Delta y}.
\]
\end_inset
In the second experiment, we reactivate the computations and measure how
the bandwidth is reduced.
This allows to evaluating how the elapsed time is shared between memory
transfers and computations.
The results are given in Table
\begin_inset CommandInset ref
LatexCommand ref
reference "tab:bandwidth"
plural "false"
caps "false"
noprefix "false"
\end_inset
.
We observe a good efficiency of the shift algorithm in the shift-only case:
the transfer rates are not very far from the maximal bandwidth of the device,
at least for the GPU accelerators.
From this results we also observe that the LBM algorithm is clearly memory
bound.
When the single precision computations are activated on the GPU devices
(GTX, Quadro, V100), the elapsed time of the shift-and-relaxation test
is not very different from the shift-only test.
For the double precision computations, we observe that the V100 device
outperforms all the other GPUs.
\begin_inset Newline newline
\end_inset
\begin_inset Float table
wide false
sideways false
status open
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\begin_inset Tabular
<lyxtabular version="3" rows="11" columns="5">
<features tabularvalignment="middle">
<column alignment="center" valignment="top">
<column alignment="center" valignment="top">
<column alignment="center" valignment="top">
<column alignment="center" valignment="top">
<column alignment="center" valignment="top">
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
prec.
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\begin_inset Formula $b$
\end_inset
(GB/s, only shift)
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\begin_inset Formula $b$
\end_inset
(GB/s, full LBM)
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
max.
theoretical
\begin_inset Formula $b$
\end_inset
(GB/s)
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
Intel
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
float32
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
17.58
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
13.38
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
60
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
Intel
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
float64
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
19.12
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
17.48
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
60
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
Iris 640
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
float32
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
26.20
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
24.98
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
34
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
Iris 640
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
float64
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
20.08
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
3.78
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
34
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
GTX
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
float32
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
147.54
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
146.94
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
192
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
GTX
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
float64
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
148.76
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
49.72
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
192
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
Quadro
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
float32
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
336.45
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
329.06
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
432
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
Quadro
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
float64
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
344.50
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
127.21
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
432
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
V100
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
float32
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
692.31
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
676.44
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
900
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
V100
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
float64
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
705.88
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
610.17
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
900
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
</lyxtabular>
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\begin_inset Caption Standard